An illustrative story
One fine day in October, Josephine Muppet is on her way to work at Dagenham Community College, where she teaches a joint course in Celebrity Studies with Global Ecology. On this particular morning, her Renault Clio (which she chose, in preference to several other similarly-priced but more reliable cars, because she liked the colour) seems to be lacking its usual zippy acceleration, and there is an unfamiliar and disconcerting vibration.
She takes the car to the garage, where a misfire is instantly diagnosed. The mechanic’s first thought is that it will almost certainly be the inherently dodgy electrics that are to blame: probably a coil, or the ignition leads. But then again (thinks the mechanic) this is a Clio, so in fact it might alternatively be prematurely-worn piston rings, a broken valve, a failed injector or, for that matter, almost anything else. Ah well… let’s see, now… Closer investigation duly reveals a frayed ignition lead, which (along with its fellows, just in case) is replaced. The engine runs smoothly again. Josephine hands over £100, and everyone goes home happy.
Four weeks later, Josephine is back with, as she says, the same fault. The car’s acceleration is once again feeble, and there is the same strange vibration as before. This time, she knows that what she has is called a ‘misfire’ and, needless to say, she is not happy. Clearly, in her mind, the garage must have bodged the repair last time, and as a result the same fault has reappeared. At all events, the mechanic gets to work and the car is once again made to run normally. Josephine (reluctantly) hands over a second wodge of cash (she is not taken in by what she sees as the transparently dishonest insistence that it was a different fault this time), and everyone goes home.
Another five weeks pass, and now Josephine is really miffed: the same fault has occurred yet again. One thing is for sure: she’s not going anywhere near that garage full of crooks, which has so far lightened her purse to the tune of £200 while failing on two occasions to fix the problem. Christmas is coming, and she needs to control her finances more tightly. Instead, she invites Danny, a student with whom she is conducting an ill-advised affair, to have a look at the car for her.
(The affair is ill-advised not merely because, given Danny’s age and Josephine’s position, it involves criminality on her part, as well as a serious breach of the terms of her contract of employment. In addition, Danny, unknown to Josephine, is secretly in it only with a view to threatening, at some later stage, to post compromising pictures of Josephine on the internet. He hopes that, in this way, he will be able to blackmail Josephine into recommending for him a Pass Certificate for his course, despite the array of facts that might countermand such an award, namely: he is rarely in class; he is invariably under the influence of drugs on the few occasions when he is present; and he has yet to begin – let alone proofread – a single piece of his required coursework.)
Although Danny’s extravagant appetite for controlled substances is doing no favours, in Josephine’s estimation, to either his academic achievement or his sexual performance, Danny does have a bit of know-how when it comes to motors. This is thanks mainly to his father, who steals them for a living and who is a moderately significant player in the vibrant local banger-racing scene. When Danny looks under the bonnet of the Renault, he therefore immediately notices the following:
1. the new ignition leads correctly fitted by the garage in October;
2. the new set of fuel injectors correctly fitted by the garage in November; and
3. a large crack in the cylinder head adjacent to cylinder number 3.
Danny turns the key in the ignition, and the engine grinds, reluctantly and lumpily, into life.
‘So… it’s, like, a misfire, Miss, like… innit?’ he suggests.
‘I know that!’ snaps Josephine. ‘But it’s been fixed twice! Why does it keep coming back?’
‘So… like, … it’s not, like, an it, izzit? It’s, like, a them, innit?’ replies Danny, warring simultaneously against unfairly-redoubled enemies – the sheer conceptual complexity of the wisdom that he must convey, and the bafflingly uncompliant syntax of his native tongue. ‘I mean, like, they’re all, like, misfires…? But they’re all like, different, like, kinds… know what I mean? So… anyway… reckon my Dad’ll give you, like, fifty pound for the motor…? So… are you, like, gettin’ your kit off or what?’
Poor Josephine! She has a terrible job, an appalling boyfriend, and a Renault Clio! Why oh why did she never take the opportunity to sit in on the Level 1 Motor Mechanics course at the College? She still doesn’t really know what is going on with her car, nor whom to trust.
In desperation, she rings the Philosophy Helpline. And her life improves.
It is patiently explained to her that she is quite right: her car has had, repeatedly, what it makes sense to call the same fault: it has been uncharacteristically underpowered. A car engine (she learns) does not work by magic, nor via the diligent ministrations of a team of fairies resident under the bonnet. Accordingly, the fault was, on every occasion, nothing other than a physical state of the engine.
What physical state? Well, as she is told, her car has been, successively, in a series of physical states, all of which fall under the heading ‘misfiring’. These states can all be said to be of the same physical type, in that they all consist in a failure, for well-understood physical reasons, by one cylinder to ignite fuel and produce power; hence the common label ‘misfire’. So, in a way, it was the same physical problem each time. But the various instances of this single type of fault – misfiring – were also all, at a different and deeper level of description, of different types: one was an electrical failure, one was an injector failure, and the third was a leaking cylinder.
‘So was it the same kind of fault or different kinds of fault?’ she asks.
‘Well, there’s no single answer to that,’ comes the reply. ‘It all depends on how you individuate kinds of physical state.’
Following additional advice from the Philosophy Helpline, Josephine confiscates Danny’s mobile telephone the next day, when he pulls it out in class in order to update his Facebook status from ‘stoned’ to ‘stonked’. She ‘forgets’ to return it, and on her way home from work throws it, complete with its collection of photographs, into the River Beam. She trusts, correctly, that Danny will be too ignorant to realise that copies of the files on his mobile will have been automatically archived on his provider’s server. She dumps Danny, and for good measure has him expelled from the College for gross idleness; she also calls the police and alerts them to the shady dealings of Danny’s father. She sells the Clio to the unfairly maligned garage for £120 and buys, from the same source, a much older Volvo. She quits her job, takes a course in motor mechanics, gains an apprenticeship, and fifteen years later inherits a successful independent Volvo specialist’s garage from her kindly and childless employer. She sells the business, moves to France, falls in love with a handsome and romantic writer-cum-architect named Pascal, and lives happily ever after, gaining on the way a worldwide reputation of her own as a portraitist and essayist, and still driving and servicing the indefatigable Volvo. The beauty and happiness of her life are rivalled only by its length and the extent to which she is loved, respected, and admired by all.